Caliph: Successor of Muhammad as leader of the Muslim community.

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Rumeli Fortress History

The Rumeli Fortress (Rumelihisari) was built by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II in 1452. At the time, Mehmet was preparing to lay siege to Constantinople, trying to conquer it from the Byzantines. He built the Rumeli Fortress as a way of blocking the city’s supplies.

Over 3,000 people toiled to create the Rumeli Fortress and it was completed in the staggeringly short period of four months. It was located along the Bosporus, across from the Anadolu Hisari, a fort built by Mehmet’s great grandfather and on the site of a former Roman fortification.

Mehmet was finally successful in capturing Constantinople in May 1453 and is known as Mehmet the Conqueror.

Today, the historic Rumeli Fortress and museum is open to the public, who can enjoy great views from its towers.

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The Art of the Book in the Ilkhanid Period

The arts of the book in the Ilkhanid period reached unparalleled levels, not only in quantity but also in quality. The new rulers gave impetus to book production after they settled in their capitals of Maragha, Tabriz, and Baghdad and developed an interest in historical writings as a means to further their claim to rule over a foreign land. Not surprisingly, they chose the
Shahnama (Book of Kings)
as a sort of official dynastic history in which the Ilkhanids identified themselves with kings and heroes of the Iranian past.
The Mongols’ attitude toward the power of the word and the image, however, is not sufficient to explain the unprecedented use of high-quality paper, the richness of illumination, the refinement of calligraphy, and the blossoming of illustration that Iran and Iraq witnessed during the Ilkhanid period (

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Abu Nasr Al-Farabi

Abu Nasr Muhammad al- Farabi, one the earliest Islamic intellectuals who were instrumental in transmitting the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle to the Muslim world, had a considerable influence on the later Islamic philosophers such as Avicenna.
He was an outstanding linguist who translated the Greek works on Aristotle and Plato and made a considerable additions to them of his own.
He earned the nickname Mallim-e-Sani, which is translated as “second master” or “second teacher”.

Early Life:
Al-Farabi completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, later on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time. During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of knowledge and technology. Farabi contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music, but the major ones are in philosophy, logic and sociology and for which he stands out as an Encyclopedist.

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Dhuhr prayers are the afternoon prayers

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Nemrut History

Nemrut is the site of the eminently impressive first century BC mountain-top tomb of King Antiochus I Epiphanes.

Also known as or Nemrud or as Mount Nemrut (Nemrut Dağı in Turkish), the site is famed for its 10-metre-high statues depicting various heads, both mythical and real in nature.

Antiochus may have been descended from Darius the Great and Alexander the Great, but his own Commagene kingdom is far less well known. Indeed, the grandeur of Nemrut has proved such a draw over the years that this UNESCO-listed site is often credited with putting his realm on the map.

Today, Nemrut is usually visited at sunrise or sunset, the times considered best for admiring its still-life population.

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Termessos History

Located high in the mountains at Güllük National Park, the picturesque city of Termessos is perhaps one of the best preserved Roman/Hellenistic ruins in Turkey.

Founded by the Solyms, an ancient Anataolian community, the early history of the inhabitants of this city is relatively obscure, however it is known that the city successfully defended itself against Alexander the Great in c333 BC. The city later became an ally of Rome and was effectively part of the Roman Empire.

In addition to its natural defences the city of Termessos boasted an impressive gate, built in 130AD in honour of the Roman emperor Hadrian. As the city’s influence declined after the third century AD the three-arched opening to the gate was used less and less frequently, resulting in a perfectly preserved architectural monument, complete with reliefs and engravings that are visible today.

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The Hill 60 New Zealand Memorial History

The Hill 60 New Zealand Memorial in the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey is a monument to the New Zealand soldiers who died in the Battle of Hill 60 and who have no known grave.

The Battle of Hill 60 was a successful attack by Commonwealth forces to capture this hill from Turkish forces in August 1915. It was one of the battles of the Commonwealth and French Gallipoli Campaign aimed at removing Turkey from World War I.

The Hill 60 New Zealand Memorial is one of four New Zealand memorials at the Commonwealth Hill 60 Cemetery.

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114. Mankind (An-Nás)

This chapter has 6 verses.

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

1. Say: I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind,

2. The King (or Ruler) of Mankind,

3. The God (or Judge) of Mankind,-

4. From the mischief of the Whisperer (of Evil), who withdraws (after his whisper),-

5. Who whispers into the hearts of Mankind,-

6. Among Jinns and among Men.

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Istanbul Archaeology Museum History

The Istanbul Archaeology Museum (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) houses around a million artefacts from an impressive range of cultures and periods, including some of the world’s most remarkable pieces. Split between three buildings - the main archaeology museum, the Ancient Orient Museum and the Tiled Kiosk Museum - the Istanbul Archaeology Museum has much to offer the history enthusiast.

The Alexander Tomb and Other Funereal Pieces
The most impressive item at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum is often cited to be the Alexander Tomb, which was found in Sidon in the nineteenth century. Indeed, this fourth century BC tomb with its friezes of Alexander the Great is incredible and, although it is no longer thought to be this great leader’s original resting place, it is still a fascinating find.

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St. Savior In Chora History

St Savior in Chora (Kariye Camii) is an eleventh century church turned mosque and, more recently, a museum known as Kariye Muzesi (Chora Museum).

Originally built within a Christian complex outside the boundary of Constantinople’s walls, St Savior in Chora derived its name from its countryside setting, "in chora" meaning "rural". However, the building of St Savior in Chora we see today is a newer incarnation, having been built in the eleventh century and turned into a mosque in the sixteenth century.

Today, a highlight of visiting St Savior in Chora is its incredible set of Byzantine mosaics dating to the fourteenth century, when the church underwent redecoration. Hidden by plaster during its time as a mosque, these works now remain beautifully preserved.

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The Florence Nightingale Museum History

The Florence Nightingale Museum in Üsküdar in Istanbul is located in the Selimiye Barracks, the Turkish army barracks which served as a British military base and hospital from 1854 to 1856, during the Crimean War.

It was at the Selimiye Barracks, then known as the Scutari Barracks, that the English nurse Florence Nightingale achieved fame as a pioneer of the medical profession and earned her nickname as the “Lady of the Lamp”.

At its peak, the Selimiye Barracks had 5,000 patients. Nightingale discerned that the dire conditions at the hospital were responsible for a great number of them dying needlessly and successfully petitioned for vast improvements.

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Al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid (1058-1111)

Al-Ghazali is one of the greatest Islamic jurists, theologians and mystical thinkers. He learned various branches of the traditional Islamic religious sciences in his home town of Tus, Gurgan and Nishapur in the northern part of Iran. He was also involved in Sufi practices from an early age. Being recognized by Nizam al-Mulk, the vizir of the Seljuq sultans, he was appointed head of the Nizamiyyah College at Baghdad in ah 484/ad 1091. As the intellectual head of the Islamic community, he was busy lecturing on Islamic jurisprudence at the College, and also refuting heresies and responding to questions from all segments of the community. Four years later, however, al-Ghazali fell into a serious spiritual crisis and finally left Baghdad, renouncing his career and the world. After wandering in Syria and Palestine for about two years and finishing the pilgrimage to Mecca, he returned to Tus, where he was engaged in writing, Sufi practices and teaching his disciples until his death.

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30 facts about prophet Muhammad -PBUH-

Kenitra – Today, the world is going through war time, many terrorist activities are targeting innocent people in different parts of the world and in most of these activities Muslims are caught up as suicide bombers or terrorists in short.
My aim behind writing this post is to just give the most accurate and original information regarding our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
Here are 30 facts about the prophet Muhammad -PBUH-:
1. He was a descendant of the Prophet Ismail the son of Prophet Ibrahim. -PBUT-
2. Prophet Muhammad PBUH was born in Mecca.
3. The year was 570 A.D.
4. Shortly after his birth his mother died.
5. His father was already dead before his birth. So he became orphan.
6. During this time his uncle Aboo Talib and his grand father Abdul-mutlib took care of him.
7. At the age of nine he started going on trade trips along with his uncle.
8. He met with people of different nations and religions during those trips.

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Halq is to shave off the hair from the head (during Hajj)

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